By Daniel L. Sonnenberg
“Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners” (1 Tim. 1.5). He came for no other purpose than to redeem those whom the Father has given Him. Hodge affirms this declaration when he says, “the only reason Christ came in the flesh was because of the fall…Christ came into the world voluntarily to save his people from their sins; to seek and save the lost.” Christ’s coming into the world as not only God, but also Man, is of critical importance to anthropology and Christology. It was necessary for the Word, the second Person of the Trinity, to become man to fulfill God’s plan to redeem fallen humankind. A survey of some of the Christological and anthropological literature supports this premise and supplies several listings of the reasons Christ had to become a man.
Grudem sets forth seven necessary reasons for Jesus’ full humanity to earn our salvation. These include the following: for representative obedience; to be a substitute sacrifice; to be the one mediator between God and men; to fulfill God’s original purpose for man to rule over creation; to be our example and pattern in life; to be the pattern for our redeemed bodies; and, to sympathize as High Priest. The Westminster Larger Catechism identifies five reasons in response to Question 39, “Why was it requisite that the Mediator should be man?” Answer: “It was requisite that the Mediator should be man, that he might advance our nature, perform obedience to the law, suffer and make intercession for us in our nature, have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities; that we might receive the adoption of sons, and have comfort and access with boldness unto the throne of grace.” Ryrie identifies seven reasons for the incarnation: to reveal God to us; to provide an example for our lives; to provide an effective sacrifice for sin; to be able to fulfill the Davidic covenant; to destroy the works of the devil; to be able to be a sympathetic high priest; and, to be able to be a qualified judge. Likewise, Hodge lists five reasons Christ had to be man: “that He should be made under the law which we had broken; that he should fulfill all righteousness; that he should suffer and die; that he should be able to sympathize in all the infirmities of his people; and that he should be united to them in a common nature.” The works of Calvin, John Murray, Athanasius, and others, though they do not list the reasons as succinctly, provide confirmation to many of the reasons above. Table 1 in Appendix A offers a synopsis of some of the findings among these writers in the works surveyed. We attempted to place the items in similar categories while using the authors’ own terms as much as possible.
As can be seen from the table, the lists vary considerably among the authors, resulting in a long list of reasons in toto. Therefore, we will focus our attention on the items that appear most frequently among the various writers. What may not appear as obvious from the table is that there is some ambiguity and overlap among the categories. We will attempt to be as precise as possible while acknowledging the existence of the overlap. Moreover, we have attempted to avoid the subject of soteriology as much as possible for purposes of this paper. However, in some categories it seemed to be unavoidable. The reader’s indulgence is requested at this point. Following are the categories appearing from most to least often.
1. Jesus Became Man For Representative Obedience
In the Garden of Eden, Adam disobeyed the expressed command of God (Gen. 3:6-7, 11-12). In partaking of the tree which had been specifically forbidden by God, Adam, as representative head, transgressed the command of God: ‘you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil’ (Gen. 2:17a). In so doing, he broke the covenant and was sentenced to death: ‘for when you eat of it you will surely die’ (v17b). Though the word ‘covenant’ does not appear in the Genesis 2-3 account, a covenant relationship between God and Adam is implied since all the parts of a normal covenant are found: the naming of the parties, legally binding provisions stipulating the conditions of the relationship, implied blessings for obedience, and the conditions for gaining those blessings. Moreover, both Hos. 6:7 and Rom. 5:12-21 indicate the presence of a covenant between God and Adam. The Westminster Confession affirms the covenantal nature of this relationship: “The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works, wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity, upon condition of perfect and personal obedience” (7.2). In the covenant promise of death for disobedience is implied the promise of life for obedience. Adam’s perfect obedience was the condition of his meriting eternal life. The Apostle Paul indicates that eternal life is dependent on works (perfect obedience), not faith: “I found that the very commandment that was intended to bring life actually brought death” (Rom 7:10); and, “The law is not based on faith; on the contrary, “The man who does these things will live by them” (Gal 3:12). Adam’s failure to fulfill the condition of perfect obedience, then, resulted in death. Paul states in Rom. 5:12 that Adam is the representative or federal head of all mankind such that in his original sin all men fell into sin: “Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned.” The Westminster Confession affirms this saying, “They [Adam and Eve] being the root of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed to all their posterity, descending from them by ordinary generation” (6.3). Thus, in the sin of the one man Adam, God imputed sin to all men, therein effecting the loss of original righteousness and holiness and earning the sentence of eternal death and separation from God.
For this reason, Christ became man, taking the place of failed Adam. Christ, also as federal head – the second man, the last Adam – came in order to perfectly fulfill the terms of the covenant as man, to fulfill righteousness and holiness and to redeem man from death: “So it is written: “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit…The first man was of the dust of the earth, the second man from heaven” (1Co 15:45, 47). In contrast to Adam’s disobedience, Christ obeyed perfectly: “He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth” (1Pe 2:22; cf. Heb. 4:15; 7:26). Even in the face of his detractors Jesus could say: “Can any of you prove me guilty of sin?” (Jn. 8:46a).
The obedience of Christ was in a sense two-fold. These two aspects are sometimes referred to as Jesus’ ‘active’ and ‘passive’ obedience. His ‘active’ obedience refers to his obedience to the law in every respect throughout his lifetime, while his ‘passive’ obedience refers to his sufferings. We are here primarily referring to his active obedience over an extended period of time which took the place of Adam’s failure to obey during his period of testing (Gen. 2:15 – 3:7). Through this active obedience as a man, Jesus fulfilled all righteousness for mankind: “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them..” (Mat. 5:17). One aspect of this fulfillment came during his baptism: “Jesus replied, “Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.” Then John consented” (Mat 3:15). Jesus, as man, was born “under law”, that is, under the law which Adam had broken, “But when the time had fully come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under law, to redeem those under law, that we might receive the full rights of sons. (Gal. 4:4-5). By his perfect obedience as a man, he was able to fulfill the righteous requirement of the law and restore mankind to fellowship with God: “For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous” (Rom. 5:19).
Athanasius and Murray refer more to the passive obedience of Christ in his suffering. The former states that we have been “made anew” by Christ’s obedience. He notes that it was proper for Christ who created man from the beginning to be the one to renew man by rescuing us from corruption: “But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone. In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering. Both the one who makes men holy and those who are made holy are of the same family. So Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers” (Heb. 2:9-11). Thus, Christ, by his perfect obedience in suffering as a man “makes men holy”, reversing our corruption in Adam and fulfilling all righteousness. Murray points out the progressive nature of Christ’s obedience as a man which involved increasing demands throughout his life leading up to the “supreme act of obedience” in his suffering and death: “Although he was a son, he learned obedience from what he suffered” (Heb. 5:8). It was as a man that he suffered and was made perfect: “In bringing many sons to glory, it was fitting that God, for whom and through whom everything exists, should make the author of their salvation perfect through suffering” (Heb. 2:10). By these Scriptures, even more than Rom. 5:19, we know that he was the perfect man and perfect Savior of mankind. The man Adam sinned and thus failed to meet the terms of the covenant leading to death. The man Jesus Christ, on the other hand, lived a perfect life and thus fulfilled the covenant leading to eternal life.
2. Jesus Became Man as a Substitute Sacrifice
Here we find an example of the aforementioned overlap in Christology. To speak of Christ as a substitute sacrifice refers, once again, to his suffering and death, that is, his ‘passive’ obedience. Yet now we see it from a different perspective. Here we are speaking of the penal aspect of the law rather than the meritorious aspect described in the previous section.
According to the covenant, the penalty for Adam’s sin was death: ‘for when you eat of it you will surely die’ (Gen. 2:17b). As the Westminster Confession affirms, this penalty involves guilt, wrath, and spiritual, temporal and eternal consequences. “By this sin, they [Adam and Eve] fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and so became dead in sin… Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the righteous law of God…doth…bring guilt upon the sinner, whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God, and curse of the law, and so made subject to death, with all miseries spiritual, temporal, and eternal (6.2, 6). As a result of the sin of Adam, as representative head, all men are under the curse of death: “Like the rest, we were by nature objects of wrath” (Eph. 2:3b); and, “For the wages of sin is death” (Rom. 6:23a). Adam, as a man, and as representative head, broke the covenant with God, resulting in the penalty of death for all mankind.
God was bound by his own righteous nature to punish Adam’s sin and the sin of his descendants, for God “does not leave the guilty unpunished” (Num. 14:18). Yet He so loved those in the world who would believe in him to give his only Son that they might not die, but have eternal life (Jn. 3:16). However, the justice of God required that He find a means for the penalty to be paid on man’s behalf. In the secret counsel of God, the second Person of the Trinity, the eternal Son of God was chosen with his own consent to be that means. He would come clothed in flesh: “God presented him [Christ] as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood. He did this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished—he did it to demonstrate his justice at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus.” (Rom. 3:25-26). As mentioned in the previous verse, the old covenant animal sacrifices were offered during this period of forbearance, but they were not sufficient to pay the penalty for Adam’s sin. They only served as a token and foreshadowing of the perfect sacrifice that was to come: “But those sacrifices are an annual reminder of sins, because it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Therefore, when Christ came into the world, he said: “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me; with burnt offerings and sin offerings you were not pleased. Then I said, ‘Here I am– it is written about me in the scroll– I have come to do your will, O God.'” …And by that will, we have been made holy through the sacrifice of the body of Jesus Christ once for all (Heb. 10:3-7, 10). Only the blood of Christ the man, would take away sins.
To die in our place, to become an acceptable substitute, Christ had to become a man: “For surely it is not angels he helps, but Abraham’s descendants. For this reason he had to be made like his brothers in every way, in order that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in service to God, and that he might make atonement for the sins of the people” (Heb. 2:16-17); and, “Since the children have flesh and blood, he too shared in their humanity so that by his death he might destroy him who holds the power of death— that is, the devil—“ (Heb. 2:14). Christ, by his death as a man, made atonement, or propitiation (caused God to be propitious, or to show undeserved kindness toward, or brought about reconciliation between God and) man. Only Christ’s blood, which was symbolic of his death, would remove the penalty of sin: “Nor did he enter heaven to offer himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every year with blood that is not his own. Then Christ would have had to suffer many times since the creation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the end of the ages to do away with sin by the sacrifice of himself. Just as man is destined to die once, and after that to face judgment, so Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him” (Heb. 9:25-28). Yahweh himself would come in person to deliver his people (Is. 11:12; 31:1; Hos. 5:13), yet the seed of the woman would bruise the serpent’s head (Gen. 3:15), since only man could ultimately atone for the sin of man. As many of the church fathers were to claim, ‘whatever is not assumed cannot be healed.’
Jesus came as true man and took the person and the name of Adam in order to take “Adam’s place in obeying the Father, to present our flesh as the price of satisfaction to God’s righteous judgment, and, in the same flesh, to pay the penalty that we had deserved…As the son of Abraham and David he was true man, the promised and hoped-for Redeemer.” The man Jesus is the looked-for sinless ‘lamb without blemish’, the suffering servant of Isaiah 53 of the old covenant, the embodiment of the new covenant: “The God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his servant Jesus. You handed him over to be killed, and you disowned him before Pilate, though he had decided to let him go” (Act 3:13).
3. Jesus Became Man to Sympathize as High Priest and to Make Intercession
These two overlap under the category of Jesus as high priest. Jesus’ roles as high priest are related to his obedience and his substitutionary atonement as a man. Generally, His obedience relates to his help in our temptations, and His sacrificial death relates to his help as our intercessor.
First, in relation to temptations, since God cannot be tempted (James 1:13), it was necessary for Christ to become man to be able to be tested in order to be a sympathetic high priest: “Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has gone through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold firmly to the faith we profess. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are– yet was without sin. Let us then approach the throne of grace with confidence, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in our time of need” (Heb. 4:14-16). We gain confidence in the grace of God to sustain us in times of temptation (1Co 10:13) and suffering (1Pe 2:21) as we consider his sufferings and temptations which were certainly greater than our own, and yet without sin. Jesus is able to help those who are tempted because he himself suffered and was tempted: “Because he himself suffered when he was tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted” (Heb. 2:18). Even though he was God, he can better sympathize with us because he experienced these temptations and sufferings in his human body and soul. The high priests of the old covenant were able to sympathize with their brothers and sisters because they shared a like nature with them, though they themselves sinned. Christ is a better high priest, for though he shares our nature, he has endured temptations and suffering without sin, causing us to draw ever closer to God for his grace that we might likewise walk “in his steps.”
Second, Christ is our heavenly high priest at the throne of God to represent us as a man and make intercession for us: “We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man” (Heb. 8:1-2). Christ continues his atoning work by pleading the benefits of his sacrificial death before the Father (countering the lies of the accuser): “Who will bring any charge against those whom God has chosen? It is God who justifies. Who is he that condemns? Christ Jesus, who died— more than that, who was raised to life– is at the right hand of God and is also interceding for us” (Rom 8:33-34). Not only that, He sanctifies our prayers and service to God: “you also, like living stones, are being built into a spiritual house to be a holy priesthood, offering spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ” (1Pe 2:5).
Christ’s intercession is effective for all whom He redeemed: “To all those for whom Christ hath purchased redemption, He doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same; making intercession for them; and revealing unto them, in and by the Word, the mysteries of salvation; effectually persuading them by His Spirit to believe and obey; and governing their hearts by His Word and Spirit; overcoming all their enemies by His almighty power and wisdom, in such manner and ways as are most consonant to His wonderful and unsearchable dispensation” (WCF 8:8).
Not only does he intercede for us as a priest, he joins us to himself as companion priests: “and has made us to be a kingdom and priests to serve his God and Father— to him be glory and power for ever and ever! Amen” (Rev. 1:6; cf. 1 Pet. 2:9). As priests through Christ, we offer ourselves to God and freely enter the heavenly sanctuary with acceptable sacrifices of praise and prayer. Jesus did this for our sake: “For them I sanctify myself, that they too may be truly sanctified” (Jn. 17:19). As the man Christ Jesus, he sits at the right hand of the Father, making intercession on our behalf, defeating the accusations of the devil, sanctifying our prayers, praises and works of service that we, as men, might be made acceptable to God.
4. Jesus Became Man as a Pattern for Our Redeemed Bodies
Jesus’ resurrection transformed his natural human body into a spiritual body. Nevertheless, his humanity was still apparent to the disciples. They could touch the nail prints in his hands; they could walk and talk and eat with him. He still maintained both a human nature as well as a divine nature in his person. However, his body was glorified in the resurrection: “who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body” (Phi 3:21). Our bodies on earth are like his — perishable, dishonorable, weak, natural – but they will be transformed like his in the resurrection of the dead into imperishable, glorious, powerful, spiritual bodies: “So will it be with the resurrection of the dead. The body that is sown is perishable, it is raised imperishable; it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body” (1Co 15:42-44). We now have natural bodies like Adam’s, but we look forward to one day having spiritual bodies like Christ’s after his resurrection: “So it is written: “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam, a life-giving spirit. The spiritual did not come first, but the natural, and after that the spiritual. The first man was of the dust of the earth, the second man from heaven” (1Co 15:45-47). Thus, we have hope in the resurrection, that when he comes for his church we will share in the likeness of his glorified body. In fact, we will ascend even as he did: “After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever” (1Th 4:17).
5. Jesus Became Man to Fulfill God’s Purpose for Man to Rule Over Creation
At the conclusion of each stage of his work in creation, God pronounced it “good” (Gen. 1:4, 10, 12, 18, 21, 25). At the final stage, after the creation of man in His image, he declared it “very good” (Gen. 1:31). Therefore, the material creation, in spite of subsequent sin, is good in the sight of God. Paul affirms this goodness: “For everything God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, because it is consecrated by the word of God and prayer” (1Ti 4:4-5). In fact, it is God who “richly furnishes us with everything to enjoy” (1Ti 6:17).
Man has been given the right to rule over the creation: “Let us make man in our image…and let them rule over…all the earth, and over all the creatures…God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it…’” (Gen. 1:26, 28); and, Psa. 8:6 “You made him [man] ruler over the works of your hands; you put everything under his feet…”  However, in the fall, Adam, and thus mankind, lost a measure of that ruling authority: ”In putting everything under him, God left nothing that is not subject to him. Yet at present we do not see everything subject to him” (Heb 2:8). Jesus became man in order to restore God’s purpose for man to rule over the creation as a vice regents of God: “But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone” (Heb 2:9). The phrase, ‘now crowned with glory and honor’ tells us that Christ as man, has been appointed as ruler over creation (v7) by virtue of his death. He won back the right to rule as man over the creation through his sacrificial death. In fact, he won the right to rule heaven and earth (Mat. 28:18; Eph 1:22). When God exalted Christ, he fulfilled the purpose of putting all things under his feet: “which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms” (Eph 1:20).
Not only that, on the basis of Christ’s work, we will one day rule with him on his throne: “To him who overcomes, I will give the right to sit with me on my throne, just as I overcame and sat down with my Father on his throne” (Rev 3:21; cf. 1Co 6:3).
6. Jesus Became Man to be an Example for Our Life
So much has been said and written in recent years about Christ as our example in life through the “What Would Jesus Do” movement and others, that this section almost bears eliminating. However, most of these movements tend to focus mainly on the ‘tamer’ aspects of Jesus’ life, overlooking his battles with sin, opposition, suffering, and death. In an effort to balance the view of Christ as our example, we will offer a brief outline of the argument. As a man, Jesus is our example in life: “Whoever claims to live in him must walk as Jesus did” (1Jo 2:6). By the work of the Holy Spirit within us, we are all being transformed into Jesus’ likeness (2Co 3:18) and moving toward the goal of being conformed to the image of Christ (Rom. 8:29). However, this also involves a life of purity motivated by looking forward to the life to come in relationship with our perfect Savior: “…when he appears we shall be like him…everyone who has this hope in him purifies himself, as he is pure” (1Jo 3:2-3). Not only that, Christ is our example when we face opposition from sinners – “Consider him who endured such opposition from sinful men, so that you will not grow weary and lose heart” (Heb. 12:3), and when suffer – “To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps” (1Pe 2:21). Finally, he is our example even in death, “I want to know Christ and the power of his resurrection and the fellowship of sharing in his sufferings, becoming like him in his death”( Phi 3:10), demonstrating forgiveness (Luk 23:34), and obedience (1Pe 3:17).
7. Jesus Became Man to Serve as Our Mediator
The title of Christ as Mediator seems to subsume many of the other categories previously discussed. It appears ubiquitously in Christology, though it materialized on only two of the extended lists in the the first paragraph of this essay. The designations of Christ as Prophet, Priest and King often fall under the heading of Christ as Mediator in the texts surveyed. We have attempted to avoid these designations to prevent us from straying into discussing the deity of Christ and soteriology. However, its use as an overarching category under which these three often appear, indicates that Christ’s role as mediator affects nearly every aspect of redemption. So we conclude where we began: Christ became man to redeem sinners, to achieve reconciliation between God and man. To accomplish this, He took on flesh to be a mediator between and God and man.
Calvin tells us Christ had to become man in order to fulfill the office of mediator, and that the role of the mediator is “to restore us to God’s grace as to make of the children of men, children of God.” Scripture tells us that the man Christ Jesus is the one and only mediator between God and man: “For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus” (1Ti 2:5). He took our nature on himself to give to us what was his, and to become both Son of God and Son of man in common with us. So he says, “’I am returning to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God’” (Joh 20:17b). Thus we are assured of our inheritance in the heavenly kingdom.
Christ’s role as mediator is linked to the ‘new covenant’ in his blood (Luk 22:20). Without becoming a man, he could not have offered his blood as a sacrifice for sin. Jesus is repeatedly called the mediator of a new covenant (Heb 8:6; 9:15; 12:24). This new covenant is said to be superior to the old: “But the ministry Jesus has received is as superior to theirs [the high priests of Israel] as the covenant of which he is mediator is superior to the old one, and it is founded on better promises” (Heb 8:6; cf.12:24). In the new covenant, Jesus mediates through his blood promises an eternal inheritance for those who are called: “For this reason Christ is the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance– now that he has died as a ransom to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant” (Heb 9.15).
A mediator stands between two parties. Christ as mediator represents us to God and God to us through his blood. In order to do this he must be both man and God. In our sinful condition man cannot reach God without a mediator: “But your iniquities have separated you from your God; your sins have hidden his face from you, so that he will not hear” (Isa 59:2). So God descended to us as “Immanuel, God with us” (Is 7:14; Mat 1:23).
 Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1871-1873; reprint 1965), II.455.
 Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), 540-542.
 Charles C. Ryrie, Basic Theology (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1986), 244-45.
 Hodge, II.457.
 Grudem, 516.
 Ibid., 517.
 Ibid., 570.
 Ibid., 540.
 Hodge, II. 457.
 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, ed. John T. McNeill, trans. and indexed by F. L. Battles, The Library of Christian Classics, Vols. 20-21 (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1960), II.17.5.
 Athanasius, On the Incarnation, trans. A Religious of C.S.M.V. S.Th. (New York: MacMillan, 1947), 44-45.
 Ibid., 36.
 John Murray, Collected Writings of John Murray (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1976), I.153-54.
 Ibid., I.156.
 Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1958; reprint 1998), 380-381.
 Grudem, 568-69.
 Ryrie, 245.
 Grudem, 540.
 Ibid., 570.
 New Dictionary of Theology, (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1988), 334.
 Calvin, II.12.3.
 H. D. McDonald, Jesus, Human & Divine (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1968), 40.
 Ryrie, 245.
 Grudem, 542.
 Berkhof, 400.
 Ibid., 402.
 Calvin, II.15.6.
 Murray, I.35.
 Grudem, 542.
 Murray, I.35.
 Grudem, 272.
 Ibid., 448.
 Grudem, 541.
 Hodge, 600.
 Grudem, 541.
 Ibid., 541-42.
 Calvin, II.12.2.
 Grudem, 541.
 Calvin, II.12.2.